Please provide a brief summary of the initiative including the problems/challenges it addressed and the solutions that the initiative introduced (300 words maximum)
Bangkok, the capital of Thailand is the center of administration, education, transportation and economy. It is a rapidly growing and dynamic metropolis by developing infrastructure to support the expansion of urban area. Expropriation method has been used to develop roads and infrastructure. This leads to the problem of linear expansion pattern left blind lands behind the expropriated roads and social injustice that the development turns to some landowners only.
Land readjustment method is a tool for urban development implemented by Department of City Planning, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) to develop the blind areas based on Land Readjustment Law 2004. We received technical assistance on land readjustment from JICA experts of Japan. The method is multi-land development by replotting land plots and constructing infrastructure such as roads, electricity, water supply, etc., by sharing the burden and benefit of all land owners. It requires cooperation of all land owners and public agencies to make appropriate land usage for better life quality of people in communities. The Department is ready to implement land readjustment projects by adapting the concept and method of land readjustment to meet the context of Thai society based on the principle of land readjustment.
Rama9 Park Land Readjustment Project is a prototype for urban development with collaboration between public sector and private sector and BMA is one of the landowners. This is the first project in Thailand completed by legal procedure with the cooperation of all landowners to develop their blind, vacant and flooded lands as a slum community. The project developed the land for better land usage, better environment and better life quality of the people in the area. That means BMA can save budget for infrastructure development based on benefit for all stakeholders.
a. What are the overall objectives of the initiative?
Please describe the overall objectives of the initiative (200 words maximum)
1. To solve the problem of blind lands utilized ineffectively. There was no access to the area because of the front land of BMA blocked the inside lands to the main road, Chalermprakiat Rama9 Road.
2. To develop the area by readjusting and replotting all land plots to new land plots facing new standard roads and infrastructure. Reserved land was replotted and sold for the project expenses.
3. To develop the area in front of Rama9 Park to be a livable community with the cooperation between the public and private sectors. This is an example of land readjustment for other projects in Bangkok and Thailand.
b. How does the initiative fit within the selected category?
Please describe how the initiative is linked to the criteria of the category (200 words maximum)
Rama9 Park Land Readjustment Project is proposed for ‘United Nation Public Service Awards 2018’ on the sector of ‘Making institutions inclusive and ensuring participation in decision-making.
Land readjustment is one tool for land development that Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) transferred technique and method to Department of City Planning. Rama9 Park Land Readjustment Project had been carried out by Department of City Planning since 2000 and implemented by Rama9 Park Land Readjustment Association with the assistance of the Department since 2010. It was considered as a pilot project to develop the area by land readjustment method.
One of the most important factors for the success of land readjustment is the cooperation and acceptance of the land owners in the area. Because land readjustment can change the size, shape and the location of the land plots. The project also implemented on the basis of fairness and equality. The land owners contributed some parts of their land plots to cover the cost of the project operation. After the project completed, the benefits return to all land owners in an appropriate and fair manner.
The initiative should improve people’s lives, notably by enhancing the contribution of public services to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the realization of the SDGs
a. Please explain how the initiative improves the delivery of public services (200 words maximum)
From the past, Thailand has area development tools such as land expropriation carried out by government agencies to construct roads and infrastructure. Some incidents cause unfairness to some landowners, whereas government agencies have to spend budget to build roads and infrastructure. Land readjustment in Thailand is implemented under Land Readjustment Law 2004 encouraging land owners to participate in area development. Any projects cannot achieve without cooperation with landowners. However, landowners generally do not understand the method. Thus the Department has to disseminate public relations on the method to the public and coordinate involved government agencies to build network in urban development.
The Department as a local government agency proposed the method applied from Japan to develop the blind area by Rama9 Park Land Readjustment Project aiming at developing the blind and slum lands with declined huts and houses without good access. The project readjusted blind land plots and provided infrastructure with easily access. In cooperation with 32 landowners, the project started in line with ‘the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda’ on ‘Partnerships for the Goal’ to apply the method for a better community, better quality of lives and better environment
The initiative must impact positively a group or groups of the population (i.e. children, women, elderly, people with disability, etc) and address a significant issue of public service delivery within the context of a given country or region.
a. Please explain how the initiative has addressed a significant issue related to the delivery of public services (200 words maximum)
Rama9 Land Readjustment Project created potential area of Bangkok. It located near Rama9 Park and the main road, Chalermphrakiat Rama9 Road. The area was blind land and lack of access connected to the main road. Thus, this project provided an opportunity for all landowners to develop their lands and their community without waiting for BMA’s budget to build standard roads and infrastructure.
The strategies used to develop the public services are as follows:
1. The Department was the backbone of participation with landowners by negotiating to make understanding the method and acted as a technical and legal advisor.
2. Land Readjustment Association acted as representative of landowners to carry out the project with the assistance of the Department. The landowners brainstormed and voted every step based on democratic way and they contributed some parts of their land plots used for roads and infrastructure and reserved lands for selling to cover the cost of the project.
The interdisciplinary approaches were needed for the project implementation such as the training of the officials from Japan, the participation of landowners, arts of negotiation with landowners and fields of economics and engineering etc.
b. Please explain how the initiative has impacted positively a group or groups of the population within the context of your country or region (200 words maximum)
The Department applied land readjustment method to Bangkok’s society to solve the problem of blind land plots and developed standard infrastructure without subsidized from BMA’s budget to achieve the full potential of land usage by cooperating with 32 landowners of 56 land plots. After replotting of 61 land plots, the new land plots converted to former and original landowners without paying any fees based on the Laws, and reserved land used for public roads and for selling to cover the project cost. There were 4 land plots of BMA more than 10,000 sq.m. collected together as one larger plot located on the south of the project, adjacent to the main road and BMA’s office buildings. BMA can use the land more fully potential in the future. This project is an example of area development with providing standard infrastructure that landowners can implement by themselves in order to solve the problems of blind lands with technical assistance from the Department or other public agencies that help land owners preferred to their community.
The initiative must present an innovative idea, a distinctively new approach, or a unique policy or approach implemented in order to realize the SDGs in the context of a given country or region.
a. Please explain in which way the initiative is innovative in the context of your country or region (200 words maximum)
Land readjustment is a new approach for urban development in Thailand focusing on the involvement of landowners for all process of implementation such as brainstorming concept of land replotting and sharing the cost of the project to make every landowner to participate a land readjustment project. Negotiation technique is needed to make understanding the method with landowners to join the project.
Rama9 Land Readjustment Project agreed by all landowners. Before proceeding land readjustment, negotiation with all landowners was needed to encourage them to participate in the project. The Department had applied the method of negotiation to all landowners to agree on location, size and shape of their land plots and land contribution rate. Then we presented the concept of development and a replotting plan compared before and after implementation for decision making of landowners. Several meetings had been held with landowners. So it took long time for several years to negotiate with them to reach final consensus.
b. Please describe if the innovation is original or if it is an adaptation from other contexts (If it is known)? (200 words maximum)
Land readjustment technique derived from Japan by Department of City Planning had adapted the method to the context of the project, especially land contribution rate for each land plot that calculated differently from Japanese cases depending on area, value of land and other factors. In case of this Project, the land owners unanimously resolved the problem of land contribution rate without calculation the value of land before-after, but all landowners accepted to contribute equally the same rate, 17.50%.
c. What resources (i.e. financial, human , material or other resources, etc) were used to implement the initiative? (200 words maximum)
The Department took responsibility for land readjustment based on technical principles and Land Readjustment Law in consultation and advice to landowners. The first step was to create knowledge and understanding about land readjustment to all landowners by comparing the method with other area development methods, especially the benefits of landowners, steps of project implementation, land developing plan, standard infrastructure layout and land replotting layout based on the land contribution rate for all land plots of 17.50 %.
The Department is also responsible for the tasks of Bangkok Land Readjustment Board as the Secretary. The Board has the authority to act under Land Readjustment Law such as approval of setting up the Association, monitoring the Association, supervising the operation of the Association, project approval, approval of new land plot layout and approval of final step by publicizing the close of the project in Government Gazette.
The initiative should be adaptable to other contexts (e.g. other cities, countries or regions). There may already be evidence that it has inspired similar innovations in other public-sector institutions within a given country, region or at the global level.
a. Has the initiative been transferred to other contexts?
Rama9 Land Readjustment Project is the model of land readjustment applying to other areas of Bangkok and Thailand. The Department is in the process of applying the method in the preparation stage to new other projects in Bangkok by surveying new areas, analyzing data, drafting concepts design and negotiating with landowners of the new areas that is the crucial step to get consent from landowners.
The initiative should be able to be sustained over a significant period of time.
a. Please describe whether and how the initiative is sustainable (covering the social, economic and environmental aspects) (300 words maximum)
Rama9 Park Land Readjustment developed the area covering 3 aspects such as social, economic and environmental dimensions as follows;
- Social aspect: The development of the area creates cooperation to be strong community. It was evident that every landowner joined every step of project implementation. After development, the area becomes good quality housing and the landowners living in the area have better living condition.
- Economic aspect: Land owners get benefit from the higher value of land plots from blind land plots to face standard roads. The land value by market price after the project is higher 4 times than before the project.
- Environmental aspect: Originally, the project area was blind and flooded lands in the slum area. The housings were small and temporary for rent. But after the project, the area becomes better environment with access roads to all land plots including public facilities, such as drainage, electricity and water supply.
b. Please describe whether and how the initiative is sustainable in terms of durability in time (300 words maximum)
After the project, there are standard roads in the project that connect to the main road, Chalermprakiat Rama9 Road and then are transferred to BMA as public roads. Necessary facilities provided to the project such as drainage system, water supply and electricity.
The success of this project is recognized both domestically and internationally. We received 3 awards from the City Planning Institute of Japan named “CPIJ Ishikawa Award”. In the year 2016 it was awarded the "Outstanding Service Innovation Award" of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). And last year it got national level award named “Public Sector Excellence Awards 2017” from Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC). This project is considered as a “Best Practice” for both domestic and international organizations to visit the project such as Japan, Germany, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Bhutan and etc.
This project can be seen as a prototype for public and private organizations to implement land readjustment projects, especially other local government agencies in Thailand for example the establishment of land readjustment association, supervising the operation of land readjustment association, proposing land readjustment project and project implementation. In addition, land readjustment project can be integrated with other projects of BMA and other government agencies to construct public roads or public parks, etc., by setting coherent time frame and budget in order to get the infrastructure for budget saving of BMA and the government.
The initiative should have gone through a formal evaluation, showing some evidence of impact on improving people’s lives.
a. Has the initiative been formally evaluated?
If yes, please describe how the initiative was evaluated? (200 words maximum)
The project had been evaluated and won the national level award named “Public Sector Excellence Awards 2017” from Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) in the year 2017”on the sector of “Public Service Development Award” with outstanding level. The award criteria are as follows;
1) Performance outcome evaluation by considering the results of the implementation in 6 dimensions;
(1) Effectiveness and fulfillment of the agency’s mission
(2) Prioritization of service to recipients and stakeholders
(3) Personnel orientation
(4) Organization management and administration
(5) Budget, finance and growth.
(6) Effectiveness of process and supply chain management.
2) Documentation of the performance of the organization.
3) Project site visits
b. Please describe the outcome of the evaluation of the impact of the initiative (200 words maximum)
The performance evaluation has a great impact to Department of City Planning.
1. There is encouragement to the agency to develop the quality of performance and public services by introducing land readjustment method as a model for developing other areas in Bangkok.
2. The Department publicizes the success of the project that helps public relations to the public more widely. And it also stimulates cooperation between the public and private sectors, especially landowners and government agencies to work together in the future.
c. Please describe the indicators that were used (200 words maximum)
The indicators of success for implementing Rama 9 Land Readjustment Project;
1. All 32 landowners representing 100% participated in the Project.
2. The end of legal process on project implementation such as the establishment of the association, project approval, new land title deed transferred to former land owners, road and facilities construction and then transferred to BMA as public property, the end of the association and closing announcement of the project in Government Gazette.
3. The value of land after the project increases more 4 times than before the project.
4. This can solve the problem of blind lands that could not be used effectively. But now every land plots in the project has access directly to the roads and becomes better living environment.
The initiative must demonstrate that it has engaged various actors such as from other institutions, civil society, or the private sector, when possible.
a. The 2030 Development Agenda puts emphasis on collaboration, engagement, coordination, partnerships, and inclusion. Please describe what stakeholders were engaged in designing, implementing and evaluating the initiative. Please also highlight their roles and contributions (300 words maximum)
- It is a new method of urban development in Thailand with cooperation between land owners and public agency. All land owners have more opportunities to cooperate each other with the technical and legal assistance from Department of City Planning. This creates partnership and shares responsibility in developing their own communities between the government and the private sectors under democratic principle.
- Project implementation by every land owner gathered in the form of Land Readjustment Association with the support of the Department. This is the first land readjustment association in Thailand. All landowners could participate in the project and decided on every step ranging from stage of planning, layout, design and infrastructure construction.
- This project can serve as a model for public and private agencies to implement land readjustment projects, especially other local government agencies in Thailand. They can learn all steps of project implementation such as the establishment of a land readjustment association, supervising the operation of a land readjustment association, proposing and carrying out a land readjustment project. In addition, public agencies can integrate land readjustment projects with other projects such as road construction projects or parks and etc. by setting a coherent time frame and budget in order to get the infrastructure by saving government’s and BMA’s budget.
a. Please describe the key lessons learned, and any view you have on how to further improve the initiative (200 words maximum)
1) The operation of land readjustment association such as setting up, monitoring and closing etc.
2) Implementation of a land readjustment project such as proposing a project, replotting, land evaluation and closing etc.
3) Benefits of stakeholders
3.1) Public Benefit
- Creating a livable community instead of former slum community.
- A good example of cooperation between the Department and land owners.
3.2) Land owners’ Benefit
- Every land plots after the project can access to roads and infrastructure that leads to the most effective solution to solve the problem of blind lands.
- Consolidation, separation or relocation of new land plots based on the needs of land owners with their groups and each group has many land plots.
- The value of land plots increases higher than 4 times after the project.
3.3) Benefits of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA)
- BMA collected irregular and blind land plots into a beautiful rectangular shape facing the main road, Chalermprakiat Rama9 Road.
- The new land plot is located to the existing property of BMA for the future usage of the land.