Veuillez décrire brièvement l’initiative, le problème ou défi qu’elle cherche à résoudre, et spécifiez ses objectifs. (300 mots maximum)
Currently, Thailand has more than 22 million households. From this number, about 46,405 households have no access to electricity (0.21 percent).
The electricity grid system has not reached Poeng Khloeng Village, which is located on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Without access to electricity, 250 households in Poeng Khloeng Village mainly use candles and lanterns for lighting. This causes low quality of life for the people in the village. The average cost of lighting from candles and lanterns per household is about 200 baht (6 USD) per month. Subsequently, the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) has implemented a very small hydropower scheme. The project is based on the principles of development for people to coexist with the forest and properly land use to make a living while contributing to the conservation of natural resources and environment in order to create moisture and allow streams to flow throughout the year. The project also aims to create the country's sustainability in renewable energy.
The implementation of the Ban Poeng Khloeng Community Project had involved participation of villagers from start till completion of the construction, including free-of-charge construction labor and help with sourcing locally available materials. When the project is completed, residents can manage the community’s electricity use by themselves. As a result, 522 households have sufficient and are able to access to electricity thoroughly. In consequence, the Ban Poeng Khloeng Community has a better quality of life with electricity for the Sub-district Health Promotion Hospital, schools, occupational promotion training, temples, and for daily use. Furthermore, people can work additional jobs at night, such as agricultural crop processing. In addition, it also helps reduce household expenses by reducing electricity costs by an average of 50 baht per month per household, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 169.96 tCO2 per year.
Veuillez expliquer en quoi l’initiative est corrélée à la catégorie sélectionnée. (100 mots maximum)
The project has provided energy security for communities in remote areas, which is a small group of highland people who lack of access to electricity from the government. By installing an electrical system, remote communities can access to basic utilities and improve their quality of life. It is also create participation mechanism with local people. They also manage, operate and maintain the project on their own, as well as knowledge transfer and establishing a group of electricity users to manage the community's electricity use. This creates leading to community ownership and sustainability.
a. Veuillez spécifier quels sont les ODD et les cibles que l’initiative soutient, et décrivez concrètement comment l’initiative a contribué à leur mise en œuvre. (200 mots maximum)
Ban Poeng Khloeng Hydroelectric Power Project is consistent with Sustainable Development Goal number 1, which is to eliminate all forms of poverty in all areas. The Ban Poeng Khloeng Community is a vulnerable group, which deserves equal rights to access economic resources as well as access to basic utilities (electricity). The project also supports Sustainable Development Goal number 7, which is to ensure access to modern, sustainable energy for all at an affordable price, as the project generates electricity from natural water sources to provide 522 households.
b. Veuillez décrire ce qui rend l’initiative durable en terme social et environnemental. (100 mots maximum)
Social aspect: The Ban Poeng Khloeng Community is a vulnerable group that deserves equal rights to access resources and electricity. Establishing a group of electricity users, to manage community's electricity use independently.
Economic aspect: Electricity expenses are down by an average of 50 baht per month per household. People are able to work at night. Part of electricity tariff is used for repairing and maintenance, while another portion is paid as dividends to members.
Environmental aspect: Clean energy source (water) is used, and CO2 emission is reduced, along with the conservation of water sources and environment.
a. Veuillez expliquer comment l’initiative répond à un déficit important en termes de gouvernance, d’administration publique ou de service public dans le contexte d’un pays ou d’une région donnés. (200 mots maximum)
In term of geography. There is a limit to access to some remote areas in Thailand. Thus, DEDE encourages the community to form a group of electricity users to manage the project by themselves. In addition, local DEDE officers are introduced to the header and committees of the village in order to help and mentor the management, transfer of knowledge and basic production and maintenance techniques. These actions can lead the community in order to rely on their own operation and development.
b. Veuillez expliquer comment votre initiative aborde l’inégalité des genres dans le contexte du pays en question. (100 mots maximum)
Implementation of the project through community meetings, comprise of local people (males, females, children, as well as the elderly), as well as female and male electricity users, to participate in decision-making, vote to select members of the management committee, including voting in the election of the village head.
c. Veuillez décrire le(s) groupe(s) ciblé(s), et expliquez comment l’initiative a amélioré leur situation. (200 mots maximum)
The project has ensured energy security for communities in the highlands towards the edge of Thailand, most of whom are ethnic group (Karen) such as Pgakenyor and Pwo. They are poor and have no access to resources or electricity. Hence, the project had built an electrical system so that remote communities can access to electricity and basic utilities to improve their quality of life and create equality, justice, and fairness with regard to energy. About 522 households now have access to electricity in their homes and government buildings such as Ban Poeng Khloeng Community School. Sub-district Health Promotion Hospital, Malaria Center, Thailand-Myanmar Border Operations Base and temples. In addition, this project fosters love and unity within the village, as well as promoting knowledge, understanding, and awareness of the importance of preserving Ban Poeng Khloeng’s forests and water sources. It also introduces the reliability on their community by providing opportunities for local people of all gender and age to participate a project organized by government such as decision-making and project management.
a. Veuillez décrire comment l’initiative a été mise en œuvre en incluant les développements et les étapes clés, les activités de suivi et d’évaluation, ainsi que la chronologie. (300 mots)
2000 Survey on potential area which capable of developing a project
2001 Obtain budget for the project by requesting a budget allocation from the government
2002 Organize community meeting with local people and coordinate with relevant local agencies. Begin the construction of the first phase of the project which is the Ban Poeng Khloeng Hydroelectric Power Project by constructing a dam in the Poeng Khloeng River, installing one 50-kilowatt power generator, and started supplying electricity to the people on November 13, 2002. There are 250 households of electricity users, and there is a group of electricity users was established within the community to supervise and manage the project with DEDE as a mentor.
2005 Survey the area for capacity expansion in order to meet the increasing demand
2008 Renovated water turbines, generators and other accessories for the village-level hydroelectric power project. (Ban Poeng Khloeng)
2016 Renovated water turbines, generators and other accessories for the village-level hydroelectric power project. (Ban Poeng Khloeng)
The next renovation for the Ban Poeng Khloeng Hydroelectric Power Project is scheduled in 2025.
In addition, there are regularly inspections and technical services. The status of the project components and the community’s electricity supply are maintained every 2 months. In case of there is an issue that is beyond the community's capacity to remedy, the DEDE will provide technical services immediately upon being notified.
As for the follow-up and evaluation, DEDE has kept a record of the operation of the project from the electricity user committee, in order to use the data to analyze, design, develop, improve the hydroelectric machinery to be more efficient and keep pace with higher technology. This is scheduled for every 8 years, consistent with the period of improvement and maintenance.
b. Veuillez expliquer clairement les obstacles rencontrés et comment ils ont été surpassés. (100 mots)
1. Geography and climate: Entering the area during the rainy season, due to the project's remote and high-altitude location. The DEDE officials can therefore take action only during the dry season.
2. Communication & Language: As the community is an ethnic group, the DEDE officials can only communicate with the representatives of the local people.
3. Community expansion: At the beginning, the project’s capacity to generate electricity was unable to meet the demand. Therefore, the DEDE has surveyed nearby water sources in order to improve the production capacity and supply enough electricity to meet the demand.
a. Veuillez expliquer en quoi l’initiative est innovatrice dans le contexte de votre pays ou région. (100 mots maximum)
DEDE had been developed various projects where electricity is generated from hydropower, which can be used as a model for the development of similar projects. In addition, DEDE has also developed the design of water turbines and generators that are more efficient, which can generate at least 20% more electricity than the older designs. From the old capacity of 120,000 kWh per year, they can now generate 150,000 kWh of electricity per year.
b. Veuillez décrire, si cela est pertinent, comment l’initiative s’est inspirée d’une autre initiative fructueuse dans d’autres régions, pays ou localités (100 mots maximum)
The village-level Hydroelectric power scheme was started by H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej found that there were many households in remote areas which had no access to electricity. The first village-level hydroelectric power project was accomplished at Mae Kam Pong village in Chiang Mai province. Then, the village-level hydroelectric power project in Ban Poeng Khloeng was started in Tak province.
c. Si des technologies émergentes et de pointe ont été utilisées, veuillez indiquer comment elles ont été intégrées à l’initiative et / ou comment l’initiative a adopté le gouvernement numérique. (100 mots maximum)
a. A votre connaissance, l’initiative a-t-elle été transposée et/ou adaptée à d’autres contextes (par ex. d’autres villes, pays ou régions) ? Si oui, veuillez expliquer où et comment. (200 mots maximum)
DEDE has taken the Ban Poeng Khloeng Hydroelectric Power Project as a model for the implementation of the hydroelectric power projects at the Mae Klong Noi village in Umphang district, Tak province, and the Huai Mak Lang village hydroelectric power project in Mueang district, Mae Hong Son province. Both projects received the Thailand Energy Awards 2018 and ASEAN Energy Awards 2018 by bringing the project model, whether innovative design or community involvement, every step of the way to project management to proceed in the same way as the two award-winning projects.
The Thailand Energy Awards 2018 and the ASEAN Energy Awards 2018 signify the appreciation and praise for an entity that had an outstanding performance in promoting and supporting the development of renewable energy such that it is a prime example for other organizations to follow. It also encourages the participation of relevant personnel involved across all sectors in supporting energy sustainability and provide a mechanism for organizations to discover, compare, and acknowledge initiatives and best practices for continuous and sustainable energy development.
b. Si l’initiative n’a pas été transposée/adaptée à d’autres contextes, veuillez décrire le potentiel de sa transférabilité. (200 mots maximum)
a. Quelles ressources (financières, humaines ou autres) ont-elles été utilisées pour mettre en œuvre l’initiative ? (100 mots maximum)
Financial resources: Government budget is used for the construction and improvement of the project. Electricity tariff was collected from electricity users to use for the maintenance of the project, enabling it to continue to produce electricity, making the project sustainable and reducing the financial burden for the government by about 180,000 baht per year.
Human resources: Government personnel acts as mentors. They give advice and technical training to make the project sustainable. Local residents contribute their labor in the construction of the project, supply some construction materials, care for and maintain the power generation system.
b. Veuillez expliquer ce qui rend l’initiative durable dans le temps, en termes financiers et institutionnels. (100 mots maximum)
Economic aspect: Communities incur lower energy expenses and earning additional 1,000–1,500 baht per month from jobs that can now be done at night with electricity available. Such jobs include making handicrafts or basketry, sorting betel nuts and other agricultural products.
Organizational policy aspect: The project creates mechanisms and build a foundation for the involvement, from the start of the project to its completion, of the community and relevant agencies such as the villagers, related agencies and stakeholders, such as the Tak Provincial Office, Mae Chan Subdistrict Municipality, and Ban Poeng Khloeng Community leaders.
a. L’initiative a-t-elle fait l’objet d’une évaluation formelle interne ou externe ?
b. Veuillez décrire comment elle a été évaluée et par qui. (100 mots maximum)
The Ban Poeng Khloeng hydroelectric power development project, located in Umphang District, Tak Province, has been evaluated by the Institute of Energy Engineering. Kasetsart University in 2021 by using the document verification method together with the interview and collecting data from those involved in the project. The project is then assessed by using a six-evaluation criteria (OECD, 2019) model, which weigh on achievement of the project, include the following aspects namely; effectiveness, impact, and sustainability. As it is a project that has been completed and has been in use for quite some time.
c. Veuillez décrire les indicateurs et les outils utilisés. (100 mots maximum)
Indicators used in the assessment include:
Relevance = Reasonableness, Possibility.
Coherence: Needs of stakeholders, redundancy
Effectiveness = Output, Outcome
Efficiency = Resources, Management
Impact = economy, society, environment.
Sustainability = readiness, scalability.
The assessment tools include:
1. Project-related documents
2. Interview form for project managers and community leaders
3. A survey for those who will benefit from the project.
d. Quels étaient les conclusions principales de l’évaluation (par exemple l’adéquation des ressources mobilisées pour l’initiative, la qualité de la mise en œuvre et des défis auxquels vous avez été confrontés, les résultats principaux, la durabilité de l’initiative, les impacts) et comment cette information est utilisée pour mettre en place l’initiative. (200 mots)
1. Relevance, the project was reasonable to undertake with a high chance of achievement.
2. Coherence, the project was in line with the stakeholders' needs, but had a chance to overlap with the service area expansion of Provincial Electricity Authority.
3. Effectiveness, the project was able to achieve the main objective of creating opportunities for access to electricity. But there are some problems with power quality.
4. Efficiency, the project had appropriate resource allocation and strong management.
5. Impact, the project clearly had a positive impact on economy and society. However, it is possible to negatively affect the environment with the community expansion.
6. Sustainability, the project will benefit the community for more than 10 years, but depends on support from DEDE and is limited in the expansion.
Implementation of the evaluation results (suggestions)
1. To reduce power quality problems, DEDE should study feasibility of developing a hybrid system between hydro and solar power source, together with an energy storage system.
2. To achieve sustainability and reduce budget constraints, the DEDE should reconsider electricity tariff rate, in order to be sufficient for maintenance, especially the main maintenance which will be scheduled every 5 years.
Veuillez décrire comment l’initiative s’inscrit dans le paysage institutionnel adéquat (par exemple, comment elle se situe par rapport aux agences gouvernementales pertinentes, et comment les relations institutionnelles avec ces dernières ont été menées). (200 mots maximum)
DEDE established a mechanism for cooperation and participation among government agencies as follows:
DEDE: Detailed inspection, coordinate with relevant departments to determine the construction area and provide a budget for construction. Supervise and conduct trainings to transfer knowledge to the community. Provide technical services assistance, monitor usage data to design, improve, and develop to increase efficiency, extend the project's performance to be used comprehensively.
Mae Chan Subdistrict Municipality: Dispatch officers to preliminarily survey the area, examine the water conditions in the village, and prepare detailed information and a letter requesting support for the project through the Tak Provincial Office
Tak Provincial Office: Prepare a letter requesting support for developing the project and send to the DEDE, as well as provide relevant details along with the letter.
The Office of Natural Resources and Environment, Umphang District and Subdistrict Municipality: Investigate the type of forests in the area and determine the feasibility of the project.
Tak Provincial Energy Office: Facilitate on coordination between the DEDE and the Tak Provincial Office in order to resolve issues that may arise at any stage, from the beginning to the completion of the project.
L’agenda 2030 pour le développement durable met l’accent sur la collaboration, l’engagement, les partenariats et l’inclusion. Veuillez décrire quels acteurs ont été engagés dans la conception, la mise en œuvre et l’évaluation de l’initiative et comment cet engagement a eu lieu. (200 mots maximum)
Approaches to promote integrated collaboration
DEDE created a mechanism to coordinate with government agencies which relevant to the permission for the land use such as the Office of Natural Resources and Environment of Tak Province, Royal Forest Department and local administrative organizations, to ensure the proper use of the land to be in accordance with the regulations. DEDE also created a mechanism for cooperation and participation between government agencies, including Mae Chan Subdistrict Municipality, Tak Provincial Office Office of Natural Resources and Environment, Umphang District and Umphang Subdistrict Municipality, Tak Provincial Energy Office
DEDE organized meetings with communities and stakeholders across all sectors in the area to create an understanding of the project, listen to suggestions and set rules and mutual agreement for the implementation of the project from the outset. Such agreements include the contribution of free labor to the construction work, the contribution of local materials such as rocks, gravel, sand, etc. to the construction of the project, and the management and maintenance of the project by the community after its completion, to create a sense of ownership to the local people and make the project sustainable.
Veuillez décrire les leçons clés apportées par cette expérience, et comment votre organisation prévoit d’améliorer l’initiative. (200 mots maximum).
The village-level hydroelectric power project creates a knowledge on development of clean energy, environmental protection, transparent collaborative governance, and social management of remote communities. People can have equal access to electricity, together with better well-being.
1. It can be a model for very small-scale hydropower development projects in two remote areas which are Mae Klong Noi village in Tak province and Huai Mak Klang village in Mae Hong Son province. Both projects received Thailand and ASEAN Energy Awards 2018. In addition, the Ban Poeng Khloeng Hydroelectric Power Project also won Thailand Energy Award 2021.
2. Attitude of the community had been changed to preservation of forests and watersheds to ensure that the community has enough water to generate electricity.
3. Sustainability of the project will be achieved through the driving force of people in community by creating participation and team work to create an ownership of the community property.
4. DEDE need to have the plan to improve power plant’s efficiency by designing, developing and improving water turbines and accessories, together with the plan to generate electricity by adding other renewable energy power generation to the existing hydropower projects for supporting the continued expansion of the community.