Several years ago, inadequate waste management of pig farms led to adverse environmental risks (i.e. unpleasant odor, wastewater, and fermented manure) which pose serious public health hazards to surrounding communities. This resulted in conflicting points of view between pig farm entrepreneurs and local people. The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) plays an important role in preventing environmental risks from livestock production by developing projects to solve issues effectively and sustainably. Between 2013 and-2014, the community of Khee Lek sub-district, Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai encountered wastewater pollution from a pig farm causing serious health and environmental hazard. As a rise in a number of flies carrying pathogens generated severe health issues in the community, DLD collaborated with integral groups among public organizations, private sectors, education sectors, and villagers to find efficient solutions. The focal aims of this initiative are to manage and reduce pig farm waste disposal into the environment and to promote a national resource management option for biogas systems. The Biogas system is a potential alternative renewable energy source for local villagers. This can reduce energy cost, fossil energy consumption, deforestation, and wood coal burning; all of the activities release the biogas to the surrounded community. Consequently, treated water and sedimental manure would be used as fertilizers in agricultural areas to replace chemical fertilizers. This introduces an environmentally-friend measure, called a ‘Green agriculture’. All in all, this project aims to support collaboration among organizations for wastewater system adaptation and pig farm management to promote positive community and environmental impacts.
The project aligns with the award promoting integrated mechanism for sustainable development category as it’s a collaborative project between pig farms in Khee Lek municipal office and several government sectors (i.e. DLD, DPT, Provincial NRE Office, Energy Office, DOAE Office, and CMRU) with the mutual objectives to find sustainable solutions. This collaborative initiative aims to solve the health and environmental problems and conflicts. The project resulted in making the villagers have better sanitation and quality of life by having the biogas as a by-product which can be used as the renewable energy and substituted firewood which can cause air pollution.
One of the outcomes of this project is the production of biogas from pig-farm manure, which can replace the existing energy sources, such as electricity, firewood, charcoal, and LPG. The project also meets with the Sustainable Development Goal 12.2 "Effectively succeed the national resources and environmental management plan" ; Goal 12.4 "Succeed chemical and waste management with eco-friendly through product cycle with accepted globally ideas and reduce releasing chemical and waste through the air, water, and soil for preventing undesirable effects to human health and environment"; and Goal 12.5 as the project successfully reduced and transformed the useless pig-farm waste that is normally discarded to the nature to fertilizer and the renewable energy.
With the coordination among government organizations, pig farms, and the local community, the project became socio-economic sustainable. The pig farms were funded with low-interest rates by DLD and the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) to establish a waste management system. The biogas, as a by-product, was later provided to villagers by collecting them 20 THB per household per month. As a consequence, the pollution in the area was declined while its natural environment improved.
a. 请解释该项目如何解决特定国家或地区范围内的政府管理、公共行政或公共服务方面的重大缺失。 （最多200字）
DLD with the mission to prevent impacts from livestock onto the environment collaborated with other organizations to solve the problems and made benefits for themselves as well as national resources conservation. The project ‘Green energy for the unpolluted community by dispute breakdown’ came up with the biogas utilized by the community with the management system so that the community could live by themselves.
b. 请描述该项目如何解决国家背景下的性别不平等问题。 （最多100字）
The energy management plan was designed for every household with in the area including the farm itself regardless of genders and living status.
c. 请描述该项目的目标群体是谁，并解释该项目给目标群体带来的改善成果。 （最多200字）
In the economic aspect, the pig-farm entrepreneurs obtain had more income while, reducing cost for electricity and LPG. Furthermore, the villagers in the community can use biogas as an alternative energy and reducing the usage of chemical fertilizer for their crops. According to the social aspect, the locals could live in good environment with good health and peace.
1. In 2015, Suthat pig farm had indecent waste management that brought disputes and conflict to its surroundings. As the community was gradually growing close to the pig farm, which led to an argument between farm’s entrepreneur and the villagers. DLD, therefore, investigated the incident and tried to introduce the solutions; however, the result was dissatisfied.
2. In late 2015, relevant DLD divisions, especially Bureau of Livestock Standard and Certification (BLSC) introduced an idea to support and fund environmentally friendly construction of waste management system (Biogas System).
3. DLD held a regular meeting and discussion between stakeholders and related organizations to exchange opinion and strategize for solving problem with sustainable way of plan.
1. The problems in construction plan process during the construction.
Solution: DLD and the related organizations collaboratively surveyed, designed and supervised plan.
2. The pig-farm entrepreneur had limited budget due to the payment distribution of the construction cost.
Solution: Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC) supported low-interest loan for the investment.
3. After the construction, there was excessive biogas from the production.
Solution: Related organizations found the approaches to provide biogas to 120 household communities by using pipeline.
4. No maintenance after the construction.
Solution: The local manager committee was organized to schedule maintenance system under DLD and provincial committee advice.
Wastewater and pig farm manure were kept and processed in the biogas system. They were treated with fermentation microorganism resulted in biogas production and later sent to households via pipeline. The gas from the system was used for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) replacement and electricity production. Without any chemical usage, sedimental wastewater was used as fertilizer and had no negative impact to the environment. It can be claimed that the project is an effective national resources and environment management with the integration of all stakeholders.
Adaptation of treated wastewater and manure usage after processed in the biogas system to prevent the environmental effects from pig farm.
The project was expanded to 23 provinces and participated by 68 farms which established project similarly such as Chiang Mai, Sri Saket, Chanthaburi, Patthalung, Chai Nat, Saraburi, Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Khonkaen, Maha Sarakham, Roi Et, Phayao, Nan, Lampang, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Nakhon Sawan, Rayong, Trat, Nakhon Nayok and Phisanulok. Moreover, this project could be adapted in other areas, countries and continents base on the relevant contexts and environment.
Department of Livestock Development (DLD) supported more than 50% of the construction budget while the pig farm paid the rest with low-interest loan provided by BAAC. DLD and its affiliates did the construction planning, starting from preliminary survey and the construction site, design, to waste management system construction supervision. Chiang Mai Rajabhat University and Thai Health Promotion Foundation (THPF) designed pipe work throughout the village to enhance the efficiency of the system.
The community organized the local committee to manage the biogas production and pipeline system. With the 20 baht per household per month usage fee, each unit has reduced LPG cost for 400 baht per month in average and reduced the chance of deforestation. Lastly, Suthat pig farm could operate the business without any conflicts and disputes from the villagers and saved electricity cost for approximately 10,000 baht per month.
b. 请描述一下评估是如何进行的以及由谁评估的。 （最多100字）
The project results were evaluated by the Environmental Livestock Standard Group, Bureau of Livestock Standard and Certification (BLSC), Department of Livestock Development (DLD) and Chiang Mai University.
The evaluation was conducted by comparing the expenditures from the energy cost occurring before and after the management system was constructed. In addition, the evaluation consists of several criteria: satisfaction evaluation, internal rate of return (IRR) evaluation and greenhouse gasses emission reduction evaluation.
d. 评估的主要发现是什么（例如，该项目筹集的资源充足、实施质量和面临的挑战、主要成果、倡议的可持续性，影响力等）以及如何利用这些信息为该项目的实施提供资讯 。（最多200字）
The results were used to consider the continuous support of the project by worthiness, environmental benefits, and social benefits.
请描述该项目如何在其机构范围内以整合的方式开展工作; 例如，该项目如何在各级政府中横向或者纵向开展工作？ （最多200字）
DLD founded the ‘project committee’ from relevant organizations and stakeholders to work together and track the project to reach its objectives while the provincial governor founded ‘provincial project committee’ consisted of the officers from Provincial Livestock Office, Provincial Public Works and Town & Country Planning Office, Provincial Natural Resources and Environment Office, Provincial Energy Office and Provincial Agricultural Extension Office to work onsite collaboratively. DLD by the Ministry of agriculture and cooperatives (MOAC), funded for this project to monitor and follow up by the Environmental Livestock Standard Group, Bureau of Livestock Standard and Certification. Suthat pig farm and surrounded community founded their own committee for managing system and usage of the renewable energy.
‘Green energy for the unpolluted community by dispute breakdown’ project was an integrated project deriving from different stakeholders. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) supported half of budget to construct the biogas system while the other half was supported by the loan from Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC). Also, DLD joined with Provincial Public Works and Town & Country Planning Office to design the system. Provincial Natural Resources and Environment Office and Provincial Agricultural Extension Office supported the information for sedimental wastewater usage. Provincial Energy Office provided knowledge for biogas usage as renewable energy. Thai Health Promotion Foundation funded the pipe work throughout village. Khe Lek Municipal Office supported community information and private engineer to design the whole system. Rajapat Chiang Mai University supported area survey, design and construct pipeline system to household. Lastly, the community set up their own committee for managing and maintenance the system.
Although the argument may occur by an indecent waste management and can cause a major problem negotiation and mutual agreement, without prejudice, made among stakeholders is no doubt essential. This project is a shining example and model of collaboration among government and academic sectors to sustainably resolves the similar issue in the future.